Adjectives

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Small grammar overview of the Spanish adjectives

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The adjectives usually accompany the nouns in order to describe or identify them in more detail.
In adjectives, the use of the verbs ser and estar plays a particularly important role.

The forms of the adjective

In the form the adjectives change just like the noun, i.e. they always adapt in number and sex to the noun:

Example:

masculine:

el hombre bueno – los hombres buenos

un perro lindo – unos perros buenos

feminine:

la camisa blanca – las camisas blancas

la mujer simpática – las mujeres simpáticas

 

the good man / the good men

a pretty dog / some pretty dogs

 

the white shirt / the white shirts

the sympathetic woman / the sympathetic women

The adjectives can be summarized in two groups according to their form:

– All adjectives whose masculine form ends in the singular on -o have two or with the plural four different endings.

El perro blanco – so

La perra negra – los perros negros – las perras negras

– Adjectives on -e are equal in masculine and feminine form

Example:

Un niño inteligente – unos niños inteligentes

Una niña inteligente – unas niñas inteligentes

An intelligent boy – some intelligent boys

 

An intelligent girl – some intelligent girls

Exception:

For adjectives ending in -án, -ín, -ón or –or, a suffix -a is appended in the feminine form.

According to the emphasis rules, the graphic accent in the feminine form as well as in the plural form is then omitted.

Example:

Holgazán – holgazana – sluggish
Parlachín – parlachina – talkatively
Cabezón – cabezona – bullheaded
Trabajador – trabajadora – diligent

For adjectives ending in -ete or -ote, the last vowel is replaced by -a.

Example: 

Majete, majeta – nice
Grandote, grandota – big

For nationality adjectives that end in a consonant, a -a is appended to create the female form.

Example:

El jamón español – the Spanish ham
La cerveza española – the Spanish beer

In the case of nationalities, however, adjectives with the suffixes -e, -a, or have the same form for both sexes, both in the singular and in the plural.

Example:

Árabe(s) – arab
Belga(s) – belgian
Marroquí(es) – moroccan
Bantú(es)  – bantu language