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The times of the indicative

There are three modes in Spanish: Indicative, Subjunctive and Imperative.

  • The indicative is the mode of the statement, the reality.
  • The subjunctive is the mode of desires and unreality.
  • The imperative is the mode of commands and recommendations.

Actions, activities or states in the indicative can take place in the past, present or future.

Overview of the times of the indicative in Spanish:

Present – Presente

Juana camina por el parqueJuana walks through the park


Past (Perfect – Pretérito Perfecto)

Esta mañana Juana ha caminado por el parqueThis morning Juana walked through the park


Historical past – Pretérito Indefinido

Ayer Juana caminó por el parqueYesterday Juana went through the park.


Imperfect – Pretérito Imperfecto

Siempre Juana caminaba por el parqueJuana always walked through the park


Plusquamperfect (Pluscuamperfecto)

Juana había trabajado ya, cuando fue a caminar Juana had already worked, when she went for a walk.


Future (Future I – Futuro Imperfecto)

Juana caminará por el parqueJuana will walk through the park


Future (Future II – Futuro Perfecto)

Cuando salga de casa, habrá recibido ya mi regalo When she leaves the house, she’ll have already received my gift.


Conditional Form (Conditional I – Condicional Imperfecto)

Juana dijo que me ayudaria Juana said she’d help me.

Completed Conditional Form (Conditional II – Condicional Perfecto)

Juana dijo que me habría ayudado, si hubiera tenido tiempoJuana said she would have helped me, if she’d had the time.