Perfect Participle

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Perfect Participle 

The perfect participle is used much more frequently than the present participle.

Formation of regular forms

The ending -ado is appended to the stem of the infinitive of the verbs on –ar and the ending -ido is appended to the verbs with -er and -ir.

hablar – hablado tener – tenido vivir -vivido

Formation of irregular forms

abrir – open  abierto poner – put puesto
cubrir – cover cubierto resolver – resolve resuelto
morir – die muerto volver – return vuelto
escribir – write escrito romper – break roto
ver – see visto freír – fry frito
decir – say dicho hacer – make hecho

Use as an unchangeable verb

The participle is used together with the auxiliary verb for the formation of the composite times and forms.

Use as variable form

The perfect participle can be used as an adjective. It adapts to the genus and number of the noun. The ending is -o (-os) for masculine nouns and -a (-as) for feminine nouns.

Example:

Las ventanas estaban abiertas

El reloj está roto

The auxiliary verb ser + perfect participle forms the passive

Example:

Es un honor haber sido invitado/invitada a la fiesta

The state passive is formed with the auxiliary verb estar and the perfect participle.

Example:

¿Por qué están todas las ventanas abiertas?

Participles are also used as nouns, e.g:

cubrir la cubierta the cover
decir el dicho the saying
hacer el hecho the fact
morir el/la muerto/a the dead person
poner el puesto the place
ver la vista the view
volver la vuelta the change, the return