Subordinating Conjunctions

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Subordinating Conjunctions

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Subordinating conjunctions stand between two equivalent elements, e.g. nouns, two adjectives, two main clauses, etc.

Important subordinating conjunctions:

y (and)

The conjunction y (and) is used to string parts of sentences together in an enumeration and to combine sentences: Estos son Ana y Luis

o (or)

With o (or) you string sentences or parts of sentences together and can offer a choice ¿Quién es más divertido, Ana o Luis?

pero (but)

With the conjunction pero (but) opposites are expressed Ana es más inteligente, pero Luis es más divertido.

sino (but)

If the first part of the sentence is negated, the opposite is expressed in the second part with sino (but) Ana no es amiga de Luis, sino su hermana.

ni … ni (neither …. nor)

With ni … ni (neither …. nor) one can also deny the first part of the enumeration. Ni tú ni Carlos los conocéis.

pues (because)

pues is a reason that is relatively unimportant, that has already been mentioned or that is assumed to be known. Luis no tiene dinero, pues ahora no trabaja.

Por eso (therefore) – Por lo tanto (therefore)

Conjunctions por eso and por lo tanto (therefore) lead to conclusions. Por eso está buscando un trabajo.

Sin embargo (but anyway)

The contrast becomes even more meaningful when one uses em embargo (nevertheless, anyway) em embargo, it optimista.

En cambio (instead)

The conjunction en cambio (instead) also expresses an opposition. An indirect comparison is made with en cambio En cambio, Ana se preocupa.


If y is before words beginning with i- or hi-, y becomes e. Before words beginning with here, it remains y:

Hablo español e inglés.

Una coca cola y hielo, por favor.

He estudiado Economía e Historia.

If o is before a word that begins with o- or ho-, the o becomes u:

¿El anillo es de plata u oro?