Syntax

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Spanish syntax – Sentence elements

The most important elements of the Spanish sentence are:

  • Subject (Subjeto)
  • Predicate (predicado)
  • Direct object (objeto directo)
  • Indirect object (objeto indirecto)

Adverbial determination (Complemento circunstancial)

The subject and predicate are fixed components of a sentence. Usually one or more additions are added. Supplements are e.g. objects or adverbial determinations.

Example:

Compro estas camisas (accusative)

Hoy he visto a mi novia (accusative)

If the direct object is an already known person, the preposition a is used.

Example:

¿Conoces a Franco Moreno?

The indirect object corresponds has always the preposition a:

Example:

Le regalo a mi abuela esta caja.

In the case of a direct object, the preposition a appears if the object is a known person.

The preposition a is always used for the indirect object. These two forms can therefore easily be confused.

Adverbs and adverbial determinations are indications of place, time, frequency, reason and manner. They can be placed either at the beginning or end of a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence.

Examples:

El sábado a las 9, el el bar „San Francisco“, quedé a comer con Julio

Quedé a comer con Julio el sábado a las 9, en el bar „San Francisco“

El sábado a las 9, quedé a comer con Julio en el bar „San Francisco“

En el bar „San Francisco“ el sábado a las 9, quedé a comer con Julio.